УДК 94(470.67)



Original article


Gazikumukh Shamkhality: on the Legality of the Use of the Term in Dagestan Historiography

Bogatyrev E. D., Abdusalamov M.-P.B., Bagautdinov S. M.



Introduction. On the basis of a wide range of sources, the article examines the problem of the once influential ethnopolitical association in Dagestan — Shamkhalate, which is currently debatable in Dagestan historical science. In this regard, the works of recent years devoted to this problem are of particular relevance.

Materials and methods. The realization of this goal became possible due to the use of previously unpublished documents from the Scientific Archive of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, published collections of archival documents, information from contemporaries, narrative sources, as well as the principles of historicism and objectivity, comparative historical, problem-chronological methods.

Results and discussion. Despite many years of scientific research on the problem of shamkhalism by Dagestan scientists and their achievements, many “blank” spots remain. Some questions still have no answers. Contemporary Dagestan historiography poorly reflects such controversial issues as the origin of the Shamkhals, their pedigree, etc. The situation is complicated by the fact that, for subjective reasons, a number of Dagestan researchers deliberately distort facts, give a free interpretation of sources without a proper critical ap-proach, deviating from the principles of historicism and objectivity. We have made an attempt to examine the problem of shamkhalism from an objective position, to present arguments that allow us to refute the illegality of using the term Gazikumukh Shamkhality introduced by R. G. Marshaev due to its scien-tific groundlessness.

Conclusion. The version about the primacy of Kazi-Kumukh as the capital of Shamkhalate does not stand up to serious scientific criticism. Relying on special historical literature and archival materials, the authors come to the conclusion that the use of the term Gazikumukh Shamkhality in Dagestan historiography contradicts the sources. It is established that this term is nothing more than a late historical construct. In this regard, the authors believe, based on data from various sources of the XV — XVII centuries, mainly on Russian documents, about the permissibility of introducing the term Shamkhality into scientific circulation without the name Gazikumukh.

Keywords: Dagestan, Kazi-Kumukh, Tarki, Shamkhalate, historiography, chronicles, residence, Turks, Mongol-Tatars, Golden Horde

For citation: Bogatyrev ED, Abdusalamov M-PB, Bagautdinov SM. Gazikumukh Shamkhality: on the Legality of the Use of the Term in Dagestan Historiography. Bulletin of the Research Institute of the Humanities by the Government of the Republic of Mordovia. 2023;15(4):39—53. EDN CRPRGP




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The article was submitted 21.07.2023; approved after reviewing 11.09.2023; accepted for publication 18.09.2023.


Information about authors:

Eduard D. Bogatyrev, Professor of Department of Russian History of National Research Mordovia State University (68 Bolshevistskaya Str., Saransk 430005, Russia), Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2613-4958, edbog@mail.ru

Magomed-Pasha B. Abdusalamov, Professor of Department of Humanities of the Dagestan State University of National Economy (5 Jamalutdina Atayeva Str., Republic of Dagestan, Makhachkala 367008, Russia), Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5239-6690, vikingpasha@mail.ru

Sapiyulla M. Bagautdinov, Independent Researcher of the Anji-Kala Society of Regional His­tory (92 Taho-Godi Str., Republic of Dagestan, Makhachkala 367009, Russia), barsbek28@mail.ru


Authors contributions:

Bogatyrev E. D. — scientific text editing, processing and analysis of material, article writing;

Abdusalamov M.-P. B. — idea, concept development, collection, processing and analysis of material, article writing;

Bagautdinov S. M. — collection of material.


Conflict of interests: the authors declare no conflict of interests.


The authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.